Homopolysaccharides contain only a single type of monomeric unit; heteropolysaccharides contain two or more different kinds of monomeric units ( Fig. ). Homopolysaccharides are polysaccharides composed of a single type of sugar monomer. For example, cellulose is an unbranched homopolysaccharide made. Carbohydrate – Heteropolysaccharides: In general, heteropolysaccharides ( heteroglycans) contain two The major heteropolysaccharides include the connective-tissue polysaccharides, the blood group substances, Homopolysaccharides.

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Disaccharides that appear naturally are lactose or milk sugar, formed by galactose and glucoseand sucrose or table sugar, formed by fructose and glucose.

Usually heteropolysaccharides are associated with proteins forming proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans or mucopolysaccharides since they are abundant in mucous secretions. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: However, some animals do eat and obtain energy from cellulose.

Glycosaminoglycans and Proteoglycans Are Components of the Extracellular Matrix The extracellular space in animal tissues is filled with a gel-like material, the extracellular matrix, also called ground substance, which holds the cells of a tissue together and provides a porous pathway for the diffusion of nutrients and oxygen to individual cells. The cross-linked peptidoglycan is degraded by the enzyme lysozyme, which hydrolyzes the glycosidic bond between N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic bomopolysaccharides, killing hmopolysaccharides cells.

Table summarizes the composition, properties, and occurrence of the polysaccharides described in this section. Guidelines Upcoming Special Issues. The biological functions include, in plants, the main way of storage of sugar, and consequently, of energetic sources; in humans, the first supply of glucose on diet Answer to C-O7.

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High-carbohydrate diets, for example, may actually increase cardiovascular risk for some individuals, such as those prone to metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes.

Likewise, insoluble fibers like cellulose expedite the digestive movement of food molecules, which is imperative in the quick removal of harmful toxins. Figure Some of the common heteropolysaccharide glycosaminoglycan components of extracellular matrix. EPSs formation by Weissella sp. Both the proton and carbon magnetic resonance methods are best applied to monosaccharides; they are less valuable heteropolysachcarides studying polysaccharides because an individual hydrogen atom in a large molecule is too small for accurate detection.


Heteropolysaccarides contain two or more different kind of monosaccharides.

Cellulose can also be converted into cellophane, a thin transparent film, and into rayon, an important fiber that has been used for textiles since the beginning of the 20th century. The UDP-glucose is then attached to the non-reducing ends of glycogen. Elective methods for improving the commercial scale production and field application of microbial biopolymers are; 1 optimizing the fermentation conditions, 2 biotechnological tools involving genetic and metabolic engineering, 3 the exploration of cheap fermentation substrates for their production [ 15 ].

Many manufactured products, including paper, cardboard, rayon, insulating tiles, and other packing and building materials, are derived from cellulose. These diseases, caused by different enzyme deficits, are characterized by physical deformities, mental retardation and disturbances in the degradation of heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate.

Heteropolysaccharides are composed of different repeating units. Additional, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. As adjuvant, emulsifier, carrier and stabilizer in food and pharmaceutical industries, plasma substitute, matrix of chromatography column, anticoagulant, paper industry, metal plating processing, for enhanced oil recovery, biomaterials.

Inulin Prebiotics, nourishes gut mucosal cells and inhibits pathogens, for targeted drug delivery against colon cancer, substitute of fat in food products. The heteropolysaccharides, called glycosaminoglycans, are a family of linear polymers composed of repeating disaccharide units Fig.

What allows the reaction to be driven forward is the hydrolysis of the pyrophosphate to orthophosphate in an irreversible reaction thus allowing the production of UDP-glucose to continue unhindered. The covalent attachments between glycosaminoglycans and hetteropolysaccharides protein are glycosidic bonds between sugar residues and the hydroxyl groups of Ser residues in the protein. Such glycogen granules also hlmopolysaccharides, in tightly bound form, the enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of glycogen.

Chitin has also been used as surgical thread, making it very valuable.

The structure of glycogen is very similar to amylopectin but more branched, with one branch every 8 to 12 glucose unit. Starch is made from D -glucose formed photosynthetically. Amylopectin shows a branch each units of glucose.


If you prefer to suggest your own revision of the article, you can go to edit mode requires login. Some homopolysaccharides serve as storage forms of monosaccharides used as fuels; starch and glycogen are homopolysaccharides of this type. Discover some of the most interesting and trending topics of Besides the rol of hyaluronic acid as an important component of extracellular matrix of skin and connective tissue, it also provides viscosity to the synovial fluid, lubricating joints, gives consistency to the vitreous heteropolysaccjarides and contributes to tensile strength and elasticity in heteropolysacchsrides and tendons.

Internet URLs are the best. Homopolysaccharides contain only a single type of monomeric unit; heteropolysaccharides contain two or more different kinds of monomeric units Fig. EPSs are microbial polysaccharides.

Chapter 11 : Carbohydrates

However, individual strands of cellulose aren’t very hydrophobic as compared to other polysaccharides. They are composed of two or more types of monosaccharides. The organization of the EPSs gene clusters are classified into four regions. It is a homopolysaccharires molecule, formed also by glucose.

Figure A proteoglycan aggregate. Bioflocculants, bio-absorbents, heavy metal removal agents, drug delivery agents, and others are the new application of EPSs [ 6 ].

Carbohydrate – Heteropolysaccharides |

Alternan Prebiotics, sweetener in confectionaries, low viscosity bulking agent and extender in homopklysaccharides. EPSs produced from LAB strains have received special attention as valuable compounds, because of their potential economic applications and positive effects on health benefits in humans and livestock. Glycogen synthesis is carried out by the enzyme glycogen synthase in which the activated form of glucose, UDP-glucose uridine diphosphateis formed by ane of the reaction between UTP and glucose-1 phosphate.

Incubation temperature and time, growth medium, acidity of growth medium and type of strain have an impact on EPSs production.