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Patrick McCluskey Department of Mechanical Engineering Over the past 20 years, power electronic systems have been increasingly required to operate in harsh environments including automotive, deep-well drilling and aerospace applications.
In parallel, the higher power densities and miniaturization of the power switching module result in elevated stress levels on the control circuitry. The objective of this study was to develop methods and models for assessing the interconnect reliability of components used in the control circuitry for power electronic systems.
Physics-of-Failure modeling and a series of thermal and reliability simulations were conducted on a 2. Assessment methods consisted of developing CalcePWA simulation models of the primary subassemblies and constructing a power cycling apparatus to perform accelerated testing of the drive. I would first like to thank Dr.
McCluskey for accepting me into his research group and providing me the exciting opportunity to learn from my mistakes. Without your patience, understanding and mentorship, I would still be lost in a sea of confusion. I very much look forward to the next hopefully three years working under your direction. McCluskey s research team. Your feedback was integral throughout this project and the office laughter provided much needed comic relief during this time. I would like to especially thank Hannes for breaking down power electronics, induction motors and three-phase electricity.
Your back-of-the-envelope diagrams served me well and I wish you the best of luck with your future in academia. Finally, I would like to acknowledge my loving family and friends who were my backbone during this ffr9014. Without your support, none of this would be possible. Overview of Datasjeet to Assess Thermal Profile IR control board back right Figure 81 Appendix: IR control board back center Figure 82 Appendix: IR control board back left Figure 83 Appendix: IR control board front left Figure 84 Appendix: IR control board front center Figure 85 Appendix: Dagasheet control board front right Figure 86 Appendix: IR power board idle back bottom right viii.
IR power board load back bottom right Figure 88 Appendix: IR power board idle back bottom left Figure 89 Appendix: IR power board load back bottom left Figure 90 Appendix: IR power board idle back upper left Figure 91 Appendix: IR power board load back upper right Figure 92 Appendix: IR power board idle back upper right Figure 93 Appendix: IR power board load back upper right Figure 94 Appendix: IR connector board idle Figure 95 Appendix: IR connector board load Figure 96 Appendix: IR power board idle electrolytic capacitors Figure 99 Appendix: IR power board load electrolytic capacitors Figure Appendix: IR power board idle front upper left Figure Appendix: IR power board load front upper right Figure Appendix: IR power board idle front upper right Figure Appendix: Introduction The study of power electronics is concerned with controlling and converting datxsheet energy.
Power is typically generated and transmitted at a fixed frequency and arrives to the load at a fixed voltage. However, the load often times operates under different power levels or frequencies, thus precise control and conversion of the incoming power is imperative to meet specific application requirements . Operated under the guidance of control circuitry, a matrix of power semiconductor switching devices resides at the core of any power electronic system .
The types of power electronic systems can be classified according to datasheft function which include rectifiers AC-to-DCft9014 DC-to-DCinverters DC-to-ACAC power controllers constant frequency and cycloconverters AC frequency converterbut most power conversion systems utilize more than one type .
The control hardware processes dqtasheet from the source, load and application to determine how the switches should satasheet in order to achieve the desired power conversion .
These control circuits are typically constructed using low-power analog and digital elements and operate under significantly less power than the power converter. Figure 1 datazheet the basic elements of a power electronic system, wherein the power electronic circuit may contain subsystems other than the semiconductor switching gr9014 such as magnetic transformers, capacitors and inductors .
The gamut of applications involving power electronics is wide, and Figure 2 shows some of the key areas. Figure 2 Spectrum of applications involving power electronics  As power electronic systems spread into these various application fields, much datasheef has been directed towards fr904. Due to the fact that most power electronic systems are not equipped with redundancy mechanisms  any fault that occurs in any one 2. Not only datashert this present significant safety concerns in mission-critical applications, but system operation costs would increase as well.
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One of the primary benefits of using power electronic converters is for their high-efficiency switching mechanism . If much f9r014 is spent repairing systems and replacing faulty components, the benefits of using power electronic converters would be redundant. For example, in a photovoltaic energy generation system, the cost of inverter related failure is equal to the cost of replacing and repairing parts plus the cost of the wasted energy that would be generated during the system down time .
This fact is not limited to photovoltaic systems, but also applies to other applications such as wind energy conversion systems. According to the U. The conversion of incoming power may take place eatasheet the form of adjusting the voltage or the frequency .
Power electronic converters, along with their respective control circuits and energy storage subsystems, are at the heart of all VFDs due to the necessary power conversion process that must take place.
Prior to the implementation of VFDs in electromechanical drive systems, motors were typically powered by fixed AC lines and controlled through a complex series of belts and pulleys 3. A typical motor drive system, shown in Figure 3 contains a power source, a power electronic converter, a transmission mechanism, a load, and various types of control systems.
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Figure 3 Typical electromechanical drive system  The AC supply is connected directly to the power electronic converter which contains the fundamental semiconductor switching elements and a variety of passive energy storage components.
The drive controllers may be integrated into the power electronic converter, as seen with recent trends in power electronic system packaging , or may function autonomously and interact with other system level controllers. The ranges of power, speed and torque of AC induction motors vary heavily depending upon the load and application.
For example, high-power motor drives usually on the order of multimegawatts are required if the application involves dataeheet ship propulsion system or rolling mills . Medium-range motor drives, those whose power requirements fall within a few kilowatts to a couple megawatts, are seen in applications involving transportation, wind generation, pumps and starter-generators . Computer and residential applications typically require low-power motor drives, those whose power requirements are less than 4.
While the fundamental components and subsystems of VFDs are seen across all power ranges, the rest of this section will investigate the power converter and ancillary subsystems within a three-phase 2. Table 1 depicts the general specifications of the drive, while Figure 4 Top and side view of the motor drivedisplays the top and side views of the drive.
There exist three methods for controlling the motor drive: For this project, only the last method was used. ft9014
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Figure 5 Ports for connecting motor, AC power source, control cables and braking resistor Referred to as local control as opposed to remote control which involves the external devices and fieldbus adapters the control panel provides a means for the user to operate the drive.
Specifically, the user is dattasheet to set the frequency at which the motor is to be run and monitor various parameters such datasgeet current, torque from the load, DC bus voltage and power output. Figure 6 shows both the control panel and USB port used to interface with the motor drive.
Figure 6 User interface – Dataseet leftcontrol panel right 6. This program allows the user to monitor and record input and output signals, operate the drive from a PC or network, provide an avenue for PID control and allow the user to create and edit custom sequence programs Control Board One of the major subsystems in the motor drive is the control board.
This board contains the primary gate-driver components that direct the operation of the power switching module. Located just underneath the top casing of the motor drive, this assembly houses the brains dtaasheet the power electronics system. Figure 7 shows the top and bottom views of the board along with the orientation within the motor drive.
Figure 7 Control board – top side upper rightbottom side lower left The primary function of this subsystem is to provide the switches inside the power switching module with signals that control the power conversion process. This board operates under significantly less power than the rest of the board, but contains the largest number of components making it the most complex subsystem within the drive.
Comprised of two terminals, one referred to as the anode while the other referred to as the cathode, this device functions as a one way valve for electricity.
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If the potential at the anode is greater than the potential at the cathode, the switch is in a forward bias allowing current to flow through the switch. However, if the potential at the cathode is greater than the potential at the anode, the device is said to be in reverse bias and does not conduct electricity.
However, there does exist a small amount of current, known as leakage current, which continues to flow through. Often times in power electronics applications the leakage current as well as the forward voltage drop are ignored and the diode is treated as an ideal switch .
An IGBT is a power semiconductor switch comprised of three terminals used to control electrical energy. Prior to the early s when IGBTs were introduced, metal oxide field effect transistors MOSFETs and bipolar junction transistors BJTs were the primary switching devices used in high-frequency and low to medium power applications .
While BJTs have good on-state conduction characteristics , they have long switching times and increased power loss. This is because they are current-controlled devices and require complicated base-drive circuits .
Conversely, MOSFETs are voltage-driven devices requiring much simpler gate-drive requirements, allowing the device to operate at much higher switching speeds .
However, the major drawbacks of MOSFETs are that as the voltage rating increases, the intrinsic conduction characteristics degrade and higher switching losses occur which generates significant heat . The module is comprised of a three-phase bridge rectifier, a brake chopper and a three-phase bridge inverter.
A combination of IGBTs and diodes , also shown in Figure 8, form the matrix of power semiconductor switches. Figure 8 Power switching module leftIGBTs and diodes within module right While the power switching module is rated for a maximum operating temperature of C and produces a system fault at C, a thermal management system is implemented to maintain the temperatures well below these levels.
Also shown in Figure 8 is the heat sink which the power switching module is attached to by means of thermal paste.
Although the power switching module generates significant heat, there exist a number of other components that require cooling such as the digital signal processor DSP located on the control board, a MOSFET also attached to the heat sink, surface mount technology SMT rectifiers, voltage regulators and various SMT passive devices.
Figure 9 displays the power board outlined in yellow and the connector board outlined in red. Figure 9 Power board yellowconnector board red The power board contains four large electrolytic capacitors, four smaller electrolytic capacitors and one transformer all displayed in Figure Figure 10 Electrolytic capacitors and transformer on power board Figure 11 Components on connector board While the operation of these components is important with regards to power electronic system design, the specific topology of this setup and how each component interacts with one another falls outside the scope of this research project.
There exists much literature  which discusses in detail the electrical engineering theory behind variable frequency drives and power electronic converter topologies.