Abstract. Fopius arisanus (Hym., Braconidae) is an egg–pupal parasitoid of tephritid fruit flies. Since its introduction to Hawaii in the late s, it has caused . Abstract. We describe all immature stages, particularly the previously undescribed instars, of Fopius arisanus (Sonan) (Hymenoptera. Fopius arisanus (Sonan, ) is an egg-pupal parasitoid of Tephritid fruit flies. This Braconid wasp has been utilized for biological control of the Mediterranean .

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Fopius arisanus Sonan, Hymenoptera: Braconidae is an egg—larval parasitoid used in control programs arisaanus Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel and Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann.

The objective of this study was to study the biology of F. Eggs of the two fruit fly species were used to determine the parasitism rate, number of offspring, emergence rate, sex ratio, adult weight and longevity of male and female F.

These biological parameters were used to develop a fertility life table. We observed higher parasitism and emergence rates of adults, a shorter duration of the egg—adult period and a sex ratio biased to females when F. However, adults of F. The fertility life table showed better biological and reproductive performance for F. Tephritidae are a serious problem in fruit production worldwide because not only do they cause damage to fruit, but they also lead to the establishment of quarantine barriers Aluja and Mangan In Brazil, Anastrepha fraterculus WiedemannA.

Among ariaanus species of fruit fly, B.

An Optimized Protocol for Rearing Fopius arisanus, a Parasitoid of Tephritid Fruit Flies

Thus, in an aim to establish a set of measures to prevent the spread of B. Braconidae aarisanus imported from Hawaii USA for release in the areas of occurrence of this pest Paranhos et al. Indigenous to the Asian continent, F. Tephritidaewhere it also showed good development in C. After its success in Hawaii, F. However, several studies demonstrate that the development and success of parasitism depends on the development of the host Bautista et al.

In species of the Anastrepha genus, the development of F. However, studies based on its development show that Anastrepha larvae were not suitable hosts for F. Tephritidae Zenil et al. Braconidae showed the capacity to parasitize eggs and larvae of A. Therefore, it is feared that the possible release of F.

This study investigated the biology of F. The maintenance rearing of C. Water and food composed of refined sugar, wheat germ, and yeast at a ratio of 3: The ingredients used and the preparation procedures for the artificial diet followed the methodologies described by Salles and Nunes et al. For every ml of the artificial diet, 0. The processes to collect the larvae and to condition the pre-pupae and pupae in vermiculite were the same as those proposed by Salles and Nunes et al. For the rearing of C.

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Approximately 9, eggs per container 0. The diet used for larval development as well as the methodology used in rearing the insects in the pre-pupal and pupal stages were the same as those proposed by Salles and Nunes et al.

The rearing of F.

Next, the eggs were exposed to parasitism by F. After 6 h of parasitism, the eggs of C. After 9 d, the larvae were removed from the diet, washed under running water through a sieve 0.

At pupation, the vermiculite was sifted through a galvanized sieve 0. As the first adults emerged, the jar lids were replaced by a screen with 0. For the rearing of F. Arisajus same parasitism procedure described arisanux C. Twenty pairs of F. The parasitoids were fed a honey drop on a piece of Parafilm Bemis Company, Inc. After 9 d of larval development for C. After obtaining the first adult insects fruit fly or parasitoidthe puparia were assessed daily.

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At the end of the experiment, the puparia that remained intact were dissected to check for the presence of flies or parasitoids that did not emerge to determine the true parasitism rate. The experiment was conducted using a completely randomized design with two treatments hosts C. The data on parasitism and emergence rates, the number of offspring, adult weight and egg-to-adult period days were evaluated for normality using the Shapiro-Wilk test and for homoscedasticity using the Hartley and Bartlett tests.

The longevity of adults of F. The parameters in the fertility life table were estimated by the jackknife method using lifetable programming in SAS Maia et al.

The highest parasitism rate was observed in eggs of C. The peak of parasitism occurred at day 13 for C. The higher parasitism rate in the eggs of C. Regarding the sex ratio, adults from the eggs of C. However, adult males emerging from eggs of A. The same pattern was also seen in female adults emerging from A.

The average survival time longevity of females of F. However, males of F. Relationship between age-specific fecundity mx and age-specific survival lx of F.

Survival curves of female A and male B adults of F. The arrows indicate mean survival time. Biological parameters of F. The higher parasitism rate, number of offspring and sex ratio of F. In relation to the net reproductive rate R oeggs of A. Parameters for fertility life table of F. The success of biological control programs involving the use of parasitoids to suppress fruit fly populations depends, among other things, on the knowledge of the biology of the parasitoid and its relationships with possible hosts Carmichael et al.

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In this study, better biological performance was observed for F. This better performance of F. One reason for the low rates of parasitism in Anastrepha species may be associated with a high parasitoid encapsulation rate Zenil et al.

Tephritidae Rousse et al. The better biological conditions found in the eggs of C. This indicates that the host provides the biological and physiological conditions necessary to provide all the nutritional requirements for the insects to develop offspring and, thus, generate a greater number of females Quimio and Walter ; Ramadan et al.

However, in the case of adults, both males and females of F. The lower longevity of females of F. Although most biological parameters evaluated for F. In Brazil, the parasitoid used so far in biological control programs for fruit flies of the genera Anastrepha and Ceratitis is the exotic Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Ashmead, Hymenoptera: Braconidaewhich was introduced to the country in the s Carvalho and Nascimento However, with the introduction of F.

Although this possibility can occur, it is minimized by the fact that A. However, further studies parasitism preferences of F.

The fertility life table allowed the parameters of population growth of F. In both hosts xrisanus, the average interval between generations Tthat is, the average length of the period between generations, was significantly lower 3 d when the parasitoids were obtained from eggs of C. Similarly, the net reproductive rate R o was 2.

According to Pedigo and Zeissthe higher the r m value, the better adapted the species is to a particular environment or host. In this study, F. This indicates that in eggs of C. However, positive values were also observed arisanks the population growth of F. The data presented and discussed in this article are preliminary studies that show better development of F.

National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List J Insect Sci v. Published online Aug Groth1 A. Loeck1 S. Bernardi2 and D.

Biology of Fopius arisanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Two Species of Fruit Flies

Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received May 13; Accepted Aug For commercial re-use, please contact journals.

Abstract Fopius arisanus Sonan, Hymenoptera: Statistical Analysis The experiment was conducted using a completely randomized design with two treatments hosts C. Results The highest parasitism rate was observed in eggs of C. Open in a separate window.