Discord and collaboration: essays on international politics. Front Cover. Arnold Wolfers. Johns Hopkins University Press, – Political Science – pages. Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics. Front Cover. Arnold Wolfers. Johns Hopkins Press, – International relations – pages. Title, Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics. Author, Arnold Wolfers. Edition, reprint. Publisher, Johns Hopkins Press, Export Citation.

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When, for example, Mr.

Discord and collaboration; essays on international politics.

It is asked whether a realistic image of the contemporary international scene should not include such non- state corporate actors as the United Nations or the Communist International. Since World War II, for example, West Germany and France have at times been close to the pole of complete and even hostile separateness; but at other times they have been drawn so closely woofers that a merger of the two into a single European Union appeared a practical possibility.

The German school of Geopolitik was consciously developed collaborattion the model of Marxism and as a response and antidote to it. It should be added, however, that even if foreign policy were directed predominantly toward a single goal, such a goal would not monopolize the entire activity of states, except in collabroation extreme emergency of a war. Trivia About Discord and Colla The international milieu, the clash of interests and demands among nation-states, or the injustices suffered by nations are not given any attention.

Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics by Arnold Wolfers

As in the Marxist view, behavior in foreign affairs is seen as determined by external conditions; the political multi- state system in this theory takes the place held by the economic capitalist system in Marxist theory. To make things more complicated, what constitutes a means or intermediate goal in one context may be a remote if not ultimate goal in another, with specific objectives changing places from one instance to another.

Such agreements are predicated on the existence of at least “two worlds” diacord two antagonistic camps and, like national armaments, are a symp- tom of international conflict rather than of collaborxtion world unity. Please create a new list with a new name; move some items to a new or existing list; or delete some items. Amazon Advertising Find, attract, and engage customers. Read more Read less. An Introduction to the Study of International Relations. Find a copy in the library Finding libraries that hold this item In this case, they would have no incentive to make or press demands on others.

The second type of co-operative arrangement, which lines up nations for mutual assistance against a common external foe, faces fewer obstacles than the inward-directed type. Accord- ing to the states-as-actors theory, American employment of the A- bomb over Hiroshima, or American intervention in the war in Korea, could have been foreseen to the extent that foresight is possible at all on the basis of the supposed common psychological disposition of states, coupled with an analysis of the existing cir- cumstances which were external to the actors.


A government which represents a nation-state as corpo- rate actor is expected to be guided not by sentiment the sentiment either of the policy-makers themselves or of the people but by a dispassionate assessment of the national interest. There is a second reason, which has been frequently stressed, why the level of generalized knowledge in international relations com- pares unfavorably with that attained in the natural sciences and some of the social sciences.

No attempt arhold be made here to identify and classify all the many goals that nations set for themselves or may set for themselves in the framework of their foreign policy.

The E-mail Address es you entered is are not in a valid format. Still, one may question whether the quest for national security and power, for national independence, aggrandizement, or unifica- tion is any less “human” and therefore necessarily less appealing to the masses than the quest for food, shelter, comfort, and diecord ness.

Reunification has become a pressing possession goal for these partitioned countries. Here for once the analogy with the behavior and interests of individuals should not be misleading. There can be no “state behavior” except as the term is used to describe the combined behavior of individual human beings organized into a state. That the condition of multiple sovereignty is one in which states “live dangerously” is also a matter of common experience and knowledge.

English View all editions and formats Summary: As a ahd, it may consider its survival at stake in a conflict over remote and intrinsically unimportant islandso such as Quemoy and Matsu or over legal discoord in West Berlin on the ground collaborayion, by an assumed domino effect or chain reaction, defeat at any one point will lead to defeat at every other point, wwolfers in the end all chances of survival are nullified.

As in all other fields of human activity, decisions and actions in the international arena can be understood, predicted, and manipulated only in so far as the factors influencing the decision can be identified and isolated. Arbold men who act for their respective states are likely to find the going easier if they have sympathy and understanding for their opposite numbers and for their peoples.

While some of the social scientists who subscribe to the psychological approach to international affairs may agree with the extreme environmentalists that statesmen are puppets of forces beyond their control, they look into the subconscious self or the neurotic complexes of the actors for the invisible hands pulling the wires.

As another consequence, enmity between two nations generates pressure on others to take sides. Thus, enhanced power may be sought as a means of obtaining more territory, while the acquisition of more territory in turn may be desired as a means of enhancing national power. Governments conceive of these cherished values in more or less moderate and in more or less ambitious and exacting terms.

To formulate expectations concerning behavior in an overheated house, one would need intimate knowledge of the varying individual predispositions and of the symptoms by wolffers they could be recognized. They may expect such co-operation to bolster rather than disturb friendly relations with others. Close and effective interstate amity as among allies should tend to promote abd friendship.


Frequently enthusiasm for such disscord stems from an inclination to downgrade certain values that nations cherish highly–and need not be ashamed to cherish–such as adequate national security and its military prerequisites. Please verify that you are not a robot. Here, also, a decision-making analysis would be useful only in regard to individuals who decided to remain where they were rather than discird the general and expected rush.

I call the former “possession goals,” the latter “milieu goals. Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions. Collaboratioh is undeniable that men alone, and not states, are capable of desires and intentions, preferences and feelings of friendship or hatred; men, not states, can be tempted or provoked, can overestimate or underestimate collaborarion own country’s power relative to the power of other states, and can establish the goals of national policy and sacrifices consistent with national security.

Essays on International Politics by Arnold Wolfers.

Discord and collaboration; essays on international politics. (Book, ) []

To say that insularity leads countries to neglect their military defenses can mean only that anc are more likely to consider their country safe if it enjoys an insular position and that they will tend, as a result, to become complacent in matters of military preparedness. Attachment to possessions, fear, and ambition although they vary in degree from man to man and from people wolfeds people can properly be called “general traits of human nature” which are likely to operate with particular strength in men who hold positions of authority and national responsibility.

Such an arrangement might become a source of friction by impairing the freedom of action of national governments without substituting a reliable new source of authority and respon- sibility.

Under these circumstances, it would be reasonable to expect and predict that a rush to fill the gap would ensue. If this should ever occur if, for example, a Communist International viscord per- suade a state’s soldiers and workers to refuse obedience to their own national government the collaboratoon in question would prove an empty shell when put to the test of war.

Don’t have an account? The reasons for enmity in any multistate system are so plentiful and various that stable friendship between all the members of the system can hardly be more than a rare exception. Thus, it may be revealed that Russians, if good Marxists, want their government to drive capitalism toward its in- escapable doom, or, if good nationalists, to secure safe access to warm water ports.